Fundamentals of Laser Dentistry

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Fundamentals of Laser Dentistry

Fundamentals of Laser Dentistry

A ready-reckoner handbook

Presents the basics of laser physics, laser safety and laser-tissue interaction

Deals with all the clinical photographs, illustrations and diagrams for clear understanding of the concepts

Presents a Chapter: Integrating Lasers into Your Practice: Practice Management, for the practical aspect of laser-assisted dentistry

Serves as an indispensable guide for students and teachers of dentistry, practicing clinicians and dentists.

  1. Basic Physics and Concepts of Lasers used in Dentistry
  • Properties of Light
  • Function of Laser Involving Optical Concepts

– Interaction Between Light and Matter
– Basic Scheme of a Laser
– Population Inversion
– Gaussian Beam and Laser Resonator
– Beam Delivery System
– Emission Modes

  • Laser Tissue Interaction

– Effects of Temperature on Target Tissue

  • Laser Media

– Gas Lasers
– Dye Lasers
– Semi-conductor—Diode Lasers
– Solid-state Lasers

  • Pumping Methods and Schemes
  • Laser Concepts

– Excimer Laser
– Dye Lasers
– Argon Ion Laser
– CO2

  • Laser

– Semi-conductor Lasers/Diode Lasers
– Solid State Laser

  1. Laser Safety

– Reasons for Laser Safety Education
– Maximum Permissible Exposure

  • Classification of Light

– Wavelengths and their Penetration Depth
– Effect of Laser Beam on the Eye
– Impacts on Skin

  • Laser Classes

– Class 1
– Class 1M
– Class 2
– Class 2M
– Class 3A
– Class 3B
– New Class 3R
– Class 4

  • Secondary Hazards

– Common Hazards
– Specific Hazards

  • Protective Measures

– Laser Protective Eyewear
– Labeling
– Directions

  • Organizational Protective Arrangements

– Nomination of a Laser Safety Officer (LSO)
– Duties and Responsibilities of Laser Safety Officer

  • Evaluation
  1. Lasers in Preventive Dentistry
  • Conventional Treatment Methods
  • Laser Application in Preventive Dentistry

– Light Interaction with Dental Hard Tissues
– Scattering and Absorption Parameters

  • Mechanism of Laser Irradiation and Improved Caries Resistance

– Changes in Enamel Composition
– Creation of Microsive or Micropore System

  • Effect of CO2 Lasers on Caries Prevention

– Surface Characteristics
– Combined with Fluoride Treatment
– Clinical Application

  • Effect of Argon Lasers

– Mechanism of Action

  • Effect of Nd:YAG Lasers

– Combined with Fluoride Treatment
– Clinical Application

  • Effect of Er:YAG, Er, Cr:YSGG, Ho:YAG and UV Lasers
  1. Lasers in Operative Dentistry

– Development of the Laser-assisted Cavity Preparation

  • Conventional Methods

– Rotary Instruments
– Kinetic Cavity Preparation—KCP
– Cavity Preparation Using Lasers

  • Laser Supported Cavity Preparation

– Er: YAG and Er, Cr: YSGG Lasers
– Surface Characteristics of Laser-prepared Cavities
– Adhesion and Margin Seal of Laser Prepared Cavities

  • Mechanisms of Ablation

– Mechanism of Absorption of Light in the 3 μm Range by Water
– Physical Factors Influencing Ablation Efficiency and Quality
– Criteria for Optimized Laser Systems in Hard Tissue Ablation

  • Ablation with Low Collateral Damage

– Ablation by Ultrashort Laser Pulses – from Thermal Ablation to Plasma Mediated Ablation

  • Other Types of Laser

– CO2

  • Laser

– Nd:YAG Laser
– Ho:YAG Laser

  • Practical Procedure in Laser-assisted Cavity Preparation

– Application of the Rubber Dam
– Display of the Cavity
– Removal of Caries
– Finishing and Restoration of the Cavity

  • Choice of Parameters
  1. Photo Polymerization

– Composition of Light Cured Filling Materials

  • Photo Polymerization Reaction
  • Laser Photo Polymerization versus Traditional Methods

– Improved Clinical Performance of Laser Cured Materials

  • Factors Associated with Photo Polymerization
  • Clinical Procedure of Photo Polymerization by an Argon Laser
  1. Dentin Hypersensitivity

– Causes
– Theories of Dentin Hypersensitivity
– Natural Pulpal Defense Mechanisms

  • Conventional Treatment Methods

– Common Agents

  • Laser Application in Treating Dentin Hypersensitivity

– Lower Output Power Lasers

  • CO2 Laser

– Direct Method
– Indirect Method

  • Clinical Procedure

– Initial Diagnosis and Evaluation

  1. Laser-assisted Cosmetic Dentistry
  • Causes of Tooth Discoloration

– Extrinsic discolorations
– Several Kinds of Extrinsic Discolorations
– Intrinsic Discolorations
– Discolorations in the Formative Phase

  • Treatment Options
  • Bleaching

– Bleaching Mechanism of Teeth
– Conventional Bleaching

  • Clinical Procedure of Laser-assisted Teeth Whitening

– Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
– Oral Prophylaxis and Application of Gingival Barrier
– Laser-assisted Crown Lengthening Procedure
– Laser-assisted Crown Lengthening Clinical Procedure
– Laser-assisted Gingival Depigmentation Procedure

  1. Laser Application in Pediatric Dentistry
  • Direct Pulp Capping

– Prerequisites for Direct Pulp Capping

  • Procedures

– Conventional Pulp Capping
– Laser-assisted Pulp Capping
– Vitality Tests following Laser-assisted Pulp Capping

  • Pulpotomy

– Introduction
– Laser-assisted Pulpotomy

  • Soft Tissue Lasers Applications in Pediatric Dentistry
  • Application of Lasers on Infantile Oral Soft Tissue Lesions
  1. Laser in Endodontics

– Endodontic Problems

  • Root Canal Sterilization

– Conventional Methods
– Limitations/Disadvantages of Rinsing Solutions
– Laser Supported Root Canal Sterilization

  • Description of the Different Wavelengths

– Nd: YAG Laser
– Diode Laser
– Er: YAG and Er, Cr: YSGG Lasers

  • Root Canal Preparation
  • Apical Sealing
  • Safety in Laser Treatment
  • Indications
  • Practical Procedure

– Access Cavity Preparation
– Root Canal Shaping
– Root Canal Filling

  1. Laser-assisted Periodontal Therapy
  • Etiology, Definitions and Pathogenesis

– Gingivitis—Periodontitis—Gingival Recession
– Plaque
– Periodonto Pathogenic Bacteria
– Histology

  • Classification of Periodontal Diseases

– Gingivits
– Chronic Periodontitis
– Aggressive Periodontitis
– Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases

  • Conventional Therapy

– Initial Therapy
– Corrective Phase or Surgical Corrective Measures
– Supporting Periodontal Therapy

  • Laser Therapy

– Applied Lasers
– Impact of Different Lasers on Tissues
– Diode Laser
– Nd: YAG Laser

  • CO2
  • Laser

– Er: YAG Laser
– Frequency-doubled Alexandrite Laser

  • Practical Procedure

– Initial Diagnosis and Evaluation
– Clinical Preparation
– Aim of Treatment
– Laser Therapy

  • Investigations of the Laser Effects
  1. Laser in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

– Specific Surgical Problems

  • Conventional Therapy

– Scalpel
– Electrotomy

  • Laser Therapy
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser-assisted Oral Surgery

– Advantages
– Disadvantages

  • Techniques for Laser Use in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

– Incision and Excision
– Ablation and Vaporization
– Hemostasis Techniques

  • Laser in Implant Dentistry

– Peri-implantitis

  • Cosmetic Facial Laser Surgery
  • Laser-assisted Routine Clinical Procedures

– Pericoronitis
– Frenectomy and Ankyloglossia
– Vestibuloplasty
– Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer Treatment

  • Laser-assisted Biopsy
  1. Laser as an Adjunct to Orthodontics
  • Laser-assisted Bonding
  • Laser-assisted Tooth Exposure
  1. Low Level Laser Therapy
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Cellular Effects of LLLT during Wound Healing
  • Effect of LLLT on Neural Tissues
  • LLLT Applications in Clinical Dentistry

– Indications
– Factors Affecting the Efficacy of LLLT

  • LLLT Equipment

– LLLT Devices

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of LLLT

– Advantages of Low Level Laser Therapy
– Disadvantages of Soft Laser Therapy

  1. Photo-activated Disinfection
  • Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

– Mechanism of Action of PAD

  • Photosensitizers
  • Indications of PAD Technique
  • Lasers Used in PAD
  1. Integrating Lasers into Your Practice: Practice Management
  • Dental Office in 21st Century

– Dentist’s Team Vision
– Expectations of the Staff

  • Establishing Fees for Laser Procedures
  • Marketing Laser Dentistry

Bibliography

Index


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  • Година: 2011
  • Издателство: Jaypee Brothers
  • Страници: 168
  • Корица: мека
  • ISBN 978-9-35-025377-9

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