Dental Materials Science

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Dental Materials Science

Dental Materials Science

The dental materials science is a combination of science of biology, chemistry and physics. Dental materials science is advancing day by day with the research and development of new materials and technology. Though many materials have been in use, new materials are being developed giving more importance to long-lasting service and esthetics. In addition, attention towards the biological compatibility of the materials locally or systematically is being extensively investigated. The performance of dental materials in the oral environment is one of the factors influencing the quality of dental treatment. Therefore, knowledge of chemical makeup, properties and handling of the materials is a must for the dental practitioner in order to obtain optimum results.

This book is divided into basic dental materials science, laboratory and clinical dental materials and detailed information about each material has been provided along with the figures wherever necessary. This book also gives the information about the modifications, developments and recent advances in dental materials.

Section : BASIC DENTAL MATERIALS SCIENCE

  1. Properties of Tooth Structure
  • Crown and Root
  • Enamel
  • Dentin
  • Pulp
  • Cementum
  • Periodontal Ligament
  • Properties
  1. Standards of Dental Materials
  • Selection of Dental Materials
  • Evaluation of Materials
  • American Dental Association (ADA)
  • International Standards
  • Other Standards and Organizations
  1. General Properties of Dental Materials
  • Liquids
  • Solids
  • Change of State
  • Interatomic Bonds
  • Crystalline Structure
  • Noncrystalline Structure

Surface Properties

  • Adsorption
  • Absorption
  • Sorption
  • Diffusion
  • Surface Tension
  • Wetting
  • Angle of Contact
  • Adhesion
  • Cohesion

Mechanical Properties

  • Stress
  • Strain
  • The Stress-strain Relationship or S-S Curve
  • Proportional Limit
  • Elastic Limit
  • Yield Strength (Proof Stress)
  • Poisson’s Ratio
  • Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)b or Elastic Modulus
  • Flexibility
  • Resilience (Cushion Like)
  • Ductility and Malleability
  • Elongation
  • Toughness
  • Brittleness
  • Ultimate Stress
  • Breaking Stress
  • Strength
  • Types of Strength
  • Tensile Strength
  • Fatigue Strength
  • Shear Strength
  • Impact Strength
  • Tear Strength
  • Hardness

Thermal Properties

  • Melting and Freezing Temperature
  • Heat of Fusion
  • Thermal Conductivity
  • Specific Heat
  • Thermal Diffusivity
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (COTE)

Electrical Properties

  • Electrical Conductivity or Resistivity
  • Dielectric Constant
  • Electromotive Force
  • Galvanism
  • Zeta Potential

Rheological Properties

  • Flow
  • Creep
  • Viscosity
  • Viscoelasticity

Optical Properties

  • Color
  • Colors and Color Mixing
  • Pigmentation
  • Measurement of Color
  • Light and Interfaces
  • Metamerism
  • Fluorescence

Biocompatibility

  • Biomaterials
  • Concept of Biocompatibility
  • Factors Influencing the Biocompatibility Aspects/Responses
  • Requirements of Biocompatibility
  • Tests for Evaluation of Biocompatibility
  • Allergic Response to Dental Materials

Tarnish and Corrosion

  • Tarnish
  • Corrosion
  • Classification of Corrosion
  1. Chemistry of Synthetic Resins
  • Polymer
  • Monomer
  • Polymerization
  • Classification of Polymers
  • Types of Polymerization
  • Homopolymers and Copolymers
  • Cross-linking
  • Plasticizers
  1. Physical Metallurgy
  • Characteristic Properties of Metals
  • Metalloid
  • Metallic Bond

Solidification and Microstructure of Metals

  • Grain Size and Shape

Deformation of Metals

  • Crystal Geometry
  • Lattice Imperfections
  • Strain Hardening or Work Hardening (Method of Strengthening Metals)
  • Annealing (Stress Relieving Heat Treatment)
  • Cast Structure
  • Wrought Structure

Constitution of Alloys

  • Classification of Alloys
  • Solid Solutions

Constitutional Phase Diagrams/Thermal Equilibrium Phase Diagrams

  • Cooling Curve Method or Time-temperature Cooling Curve
  • Solid Solutions Phase Diagrams
  • Coring or Nonequilibrium Solidification
  • Homogenization or Homogenizing Anneal
  • Eutectic Alloys
  • Intermetallic Compounds
  • Peritectic Alloys
  • Solid State Reactions
  • Heat Treatment
  • Quenching
  • Order Hardening (Order-disorder Transformation)
  • Precipitation Hardening or Age Hardening
  • Heat Treatment of Gold Alloys

Section : CLINICAL DENTAL MATERIALS

  1. Restorative Materials
  • Restoration and Restorative Materials
  • Requirements and Classification

Dental Amalgam

  • Amalgam
  • History
  • Classifications of Amalgam
  • Dispension
  • Manufacturing of Alloy Powder
  • Chemical Reactions for Individual Alloy Mixtures
  • Physical and Mechanical Properties
  • Thermal Properties
  • Mercury Toxicity
  • Technical Considerations in Manipulation of Amalgam
  • Modified Amalgams

Dental Cements

  • Classification
  • Ideal Requirements of Restorative Cement
  • Zinc Oxide Eugenol Cement
  • Zinc Phosphate Cement
  • Modifications of Zinc Phosphate Cement
  • Silicate Cements
  • Zinc Silicophosphate Cement
  • Zinc Polycarboxylate Cements
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Modifications
  • Resin Cements
  • Cavity Lining Agents and Cement Bases

Composite Resins (Tooth Colored Restorative Materials)

  • Evolution
  • Classifications
  • Composition and Microstructure
  • General Properties of Composites
  • Conventional Composites (Traditional or Macrofilled Composites)
  • Microfilled Composites
  • Small Particle Composite
  • Hybrid Composites
  • Nanocomposites
  • Acid-etch Technique
  • Bonding Agents
  • Enamel Bonding Agents
  • Dentin Bonding Agents
  • Recent Advances in Composites
  • Pit and Fissure Sealants

Direct Filling Gold

  • Characteristics of Pure Gold
  • Disadvantages
  • Forms of Direct Filling Gold
  • Composition
  • Gold Foil
  • Electrolytic Precipitate or nCrystalline Gold
  • Powdered Gold
  • Suitability of Direct Filling Gold as a Restorative Material
  1. Impression Materials
  • Concepts Related to Impression Materials
  • Requirements and Classifications

Impression Compound

Zinc Oxide Eugenol Impression Paste

Aqueous Elastic Impression Materials

  • Hydrocolloids
  • Agar Impression Material (Reversible Hydrocolloid)
  • Alginate Impression Material (Irreversible Hydrocolloid)

Nonaqueous Elastomeric Impression Materials

  • Polysulfide Impression Material
  • Condensation Polysilicone Impression Material
  • Addition Polysilicone Impression Material
  • Polyether Impression Materials
  • Light Activated Polyether Impression Material
  1. Orthodontic Wires
  • Classifications of Orthodontic Appliances
  • Requirements
  • Classifications of Orthodontic Wires
  • Materials
  1. Implant Materials
  • Biomaterial
  • Requirements
  • Types of Implants
  • Metal and Alloys
  • Ceramics
  • Polymers
  • Composites

Section : LABORATORY DENTAL MATERIALS

  1. Gypsum Products
  • Gypsum
  • Gypsum Products
  • Classification of Gypsum Products
  • Manufacturing
  • Setting Reaction or Chemistry
  • Crystalline (Dissolution-Precipitation) Theory of Setting
  • Properties
  • Dimensional Changes
  • Manipulation
  • Impression Plaster (Type – I)
  • Model Plaster or Dental Plaster (Type – II)
  • Type – III (Class – I Stone/ Hydrocal/ Dental Stone)
  • Die Materials
  1. Denture Base Resins
  • Requirements of Denture Base Materials
  • Classification of Denture Base Materials
  • Classification of Denture Base Resins
  • Heat Activated Denture Base Acrylic Resins
  • Chemically Activated Denture Base Resins
  • Fabrication Defects of Denture
  • Modified Acrylics
  • Denture Repair Resins
  • Artificial Teeth
  • Resin Impression Trays and Tray Materials
  • Stainless Steel as a Denture Base Material
  1. Dental Waxes
  • Applications
  • Classification
  • Inlay Waxes
  • Casting Waxes
  • Processing Waxes
  • Impression Waxes
  1. Investment Materials
  • Ideal Properties Required for an Investment
  • General Composition
  • Classification of Investments
  • Gypsum Bonded Investments
  • Phosphate Bonded Investments
  • Ethyl Silicate Bonded Investments
  • Die Stone Investment Combination
  1. Dental Casting Alloys (Casting Gold and Base Metal Alloys)
  • History of Dental Casting Alloys
  • Terminology
  • Ideal Properties of Casting Alloys
  • Classification of Dental Casting Alloys

Dental Casting Gold Noble Metal Alloys

Base Metal Alloys

  1. Casting Procedure for Dental Alloys
  • Clinical Evaluation of Casting Fit
  • Casting Technique

Defects in Casting

  • Distortion
  • Rough Surface and Surface Irregularities
  • Porosity
  • Incomplete Casting
  • Other Defects
  1. Dental Ceramics
  • Classification of Dental Ceramics
  • Classification of Porcelain Crown
  • Dispension
  • Manufacturing of Porcelain Powder
  • Structure of Porcelain
  • Properties
  • Methods of Strengthening Ceramics
  • Manipulation
  • Fabrication Defects
  • Metal Ceramic Restoration or Porcelain Fused to Metal
  • All Ceramic Restorations
  • Classification of All-Ceramic Restorations
  • Pressible Ceramics
  • Infiltrated Ceramics
  • Machinable Ceramics
  1. Mechanics of Cutting with Dental Burs
  • Dental Burs
  • Classification of Dental Burs
  1. Abrasion and Polishing
  • Abrasion
  • Polishing
  • Dentifrices
  1. Soldering and Welding
  • Soldering
  • Welding
  • Flux
  • Soldering Investment Materials
  • Types of Soldering Techniques

• Methods of Welding


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  • Година: 2013
  • Издателство: Jaypee Brothers
  • Страници: 338
  • Корица: мека
  • ISBN 978-935-090-671-2

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